Diets

Analysis shows low energy diets with formula meal replacements are the most effective methods for weight management and remission in adults with type 2 diabetes – EurekAlert

Summary

A new study published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) finds that low energy diets with formula meal replacements are the most effective methods of weight management and remission in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), while the macronutrient content is not important to outcomes.

The research was conducted by Professor Mike Lean, Dr Chaitong Churuangsuk and colleagues at the Universities…….

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A new study published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) finds that low energy diets with formula meal replacements are the most effective methods of weight management and remission in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), while the macronutrient content is not important to outcomes.

The research was conducted by Professor Mike Lean, Dr Chaitong Churuangsuk and colleagues at the Universities of Glasgow, (with Dr Churuangsuk also affiliated to Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand) and others from Cambridge (UK) and Otago (New Zealand) Universities. The group analysed published meta-analyses of which type of diet is best for achieving and then maintaining weight loss in adults with T2D.

While T2D is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, it is rising levels of overweight and obesity which have driven the current global epidemic of diabetes. The authors note: “Without strategic commitment internationally on effective prevention strategies, type 2 diabetes will affect an estimated 629 million people worldwide by 2045.”

The onset of T2D is primarily driven by weight gain to the point that it becomes unhealthy. The amount of weight-gain needed varies widely between individuals. The development of the disease involves a complex interaction of gut hormones, low-grade inflammation and possibly metabolites from the gut microbiota. It develops in susceptible individuals and families who tend to have large waists and who accumulate fat in their liver, pancreas and muscles.  This impairs organ functions, resulting in hyperglycaemia (abnormally high blood sugar), commonly associated with hypertension (high blood pressure) and abnormal blood fats.

T2D requires lifelong management, but even with treatment it can cause disabling, painful and life-shortening complications. However, sufficient weight loss can remove the abnormal body fat from liver and pancreas and reverse diabetes.

Weight loss is critical to management and remission of T2D and has been shown to improve all the related cardiometabolic risk factors and reduce the patient’s need for medication.

In the UK DiRECT study, funded by Diabetes UK, almost 80% of people with T2D for up to 6 years who lost over 10kg, and maintained the weight loss of over 10 kg, remained in remission from diabetes for at least 2 years.

While there is widespread awareness of the benefits of weight loss for people withT2D, there is a lack of authoritative guidance over dietary advice, to inform both patients and healthcare providers. Ill-informed controversy over diet types has contributed to inaction and delays in providing effective treatment. Current guidelines stress the importance of personalised weight management and state that various diet strategies may be effective, but do not provide information about diet composition. This can lead to patients following diets based on distorted evidence and misleading claims.

Adherence to any energy-reduced diet will lead to sustained weight loss, provided that energy (calorie) use exceeds intake. However, in practice, adherence rates and weight losses vary widely, even within the same diet programme, and some comparisons …….

Source: https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/934913